Design innovation took place in Germany, where Alrecht Pfister, Gunther Zainer and Johann Zainer Illustrated books with woodblock prints. In contrast to the theological and scholarly books published by most other early paintings of the Romantic school were focused on spontaneous expression of emotion over reason and often depicted dramatic events in brilliant colors. Pfister and others printed popular literature. Gunther Zainer introduced a greater tonal range to page design by creating woodcuts with textured areas and some solid blacks. Johann Zainer's illustrations used a very even line weight, his capital initials were printed rather then added later by hand, and the experimented with enclosing only a portion of the illustration in a rectangular border to allow white space flow from wide margins into the pictures. This light design affect was complemented by simple outline initials. Erhard Reuwich was the first illustrator to be recognized as such in a book. He introduced the crosshatch technique and was the first to use foldout illustrations.
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